Illegal Aliens and American Medicine

Madeleine Pelner Cosman, Ph. D., Esq.

A Journal for Western Man-- Issue XL-- August 29, 2005

The influx of Illegal Aliens has devastating, hidden medical consequences. We judge reality primarily by what we see.  But what we do not see can be more dangerous, more expensive, and more deadly than what is seen.[i] Illegal Aliens’ stealthy assaults on medicine now must rouse Americans to alarmed alert.[ii] Even President Bush describes Illegal Aliens only as they are seen: strong physical laborers who work hard in nasty jobs with low wages, who cultivate their families, and who pursue the American dream.

What is unseen is their free medical care that has degraded and closed some of America’s finest emergency medical facilities and caused hospital bankruptcies: 84 California hospitals are closing their doors forever.[iii] Anchor Babies born to Illegal Aliens instantly qualify as citizens for welfare benefits and have caused volcanic eruptions in Medicaid costs and skyrocketing stipends under Supplemental Security Income and Disability Income.[iv],[v]

What is seen is the Illegal Alien who with strong back may cough, sweat, and bleed but is assumed healthy even though he and his Illegal Alien wife and kids never were examined for contagious diseases. By our glance and by our shrug we grant Illegal Aliens health passes. What is unseen is that many Illegal Aliens harbor within their bodies fatal diseases that long ago American medicine fought and vanquished.  Now Illegal Aliens carry drug resistant strains of tuberculosis, malaria, leprosy, plague, polio, Dengue Fever, and Chagas Disease.[vi], [vii]

What is seen is the political statistic that 43 million lives are at risk in America because those people have no health insurance.[viii] What is unseen is that medical insurance does not equal medical care. Uninsured people get medical care in hospital Emergency Rooms under the coercive Emergency Medical Treatment and Active Labor Act of 1985 (EMTALA) that obligates hospitals to treat the uninsured but does not pay for that care. Also unseen is the percentage of uninsured who are Illegal Aliens. No one knows how many Illegal Aliens reside in America.  If 10 million, they constitute nearly 25% of the uninsured. If more, more.

EMTALA

EMTALA requires each Emergency Room to treat anyone who enters with an “emergency” associated with cough, headache, hangnail, cardiac arrest, herniated lumbar disc, drug addiction, alcohol overdose, gunshot injury, automobile trauma, HIV-positive infection, mental problem, or personality disorder. Definition of emergency is flexible and vague enough to include almost any condition as requiring mandatory care. Any patient coming to a hospital emergency room requesting emergency care must be screened and treated until stabilized for discharge or stabilized for transfer whether or not insured, whether or not “documented,” and whether or not able to pay.  A woman in labor must remain to deliver her child. The hospital must have specialists ready to treat on call at all times for all departments that provide medical services and specialties within the hospital’s capabilities. 

EMTALA is an unfunded federal mandate.  Government imposes viciously stiff fines and penalties on any physician and any hospital refusing to treat any patient that a vigorous prosecutor deems an emergency patient even though the hospital or physician screened and declared the patient’s illness or injury non-emergency. [ix],[x] But government pays neither hospital nor physician for treatments. In addition to the fiscal attack on medical facilities and personnel, EMTALA is a handy truncheon to pummel politically unpopular physicians by falsely accusing them of violating EMTALA.

High-tech hospital emergency units degenerated into local free medical offices. Between 1993 and 2003, 60 California hospitals closed because of over 50% of unpaid services, and another 24 California hospitals verge on closure. Even ambulances from Mexico come to Emergency Rooms with indigents because the drivers know that EMTALA requires accepting patients who come within 250 yards of a hospital.  That geographic limit has figured in many lawsuits.[xi], [xii]

Los Angeles County Trauma Care Network, built in 1983, was one of America’s finest Emergency Medical Response organizations. Consisting of 22 hospitals, super-high-tech equipment, superior emergency physicians, surgeons, specialists, nurses, and technicians, it offered 365-day, round-the-clock emergency care for people suffering life-threatening car crashes, industrial accidents, urban crime, natural disasters of earthquake and wildfire, and national disasters of terrorism.  Now most trauma hospitals have left the Network and so have many emergency physicians and surgeons. [xiii] EMTALA contributed to the Trauma Care Network’s loss of focus and loss of money.[xiv]

 Illegal Aliens perpetrate much violent crime whose results arrive in ERs. [xv],[xvi] “Dump and Run” patients dropped on the hospital sidewalk or at the emergency room entrance before the car speeds away usually are connected to drugs and gangs. Patients requiring tracheotomies and thoracotomies for stab or gunshot wounds are dumped at hospitals whether or not exclusively dedicated to trauma care and EMTALA governs their treatment.[xvii],[xviii] 

While nationally most people coming to emergency units are not poor and have medical insurance,[xix] cities such as Los Angeles with large Illegal Alien populations, high crime, and powerful immigrant gangs are losing their hospitals to the ravages of unreimbursed care under EMTALA.  In Los Angeles, 95% of outstanding homicide warrants are for Illegal Aliens, likewise for 66% of fugitive felony warrants. The notorious 18th Street Gang has 20,000 members the California Department of Justice deems 60% Illegal Aliens, but 80% according to the Los Angeles Police Department.  The Lil’ Cycos Gang notorious for murder, racketeering, and drugs in Los Angeles’s MacArthur Park was thought 60% illegals in 2002, though higher now. Francisco Martinez of the Mexican Mafia ran the gang from prison while incarcerated for felonious reentry after deportation.[xx]

Illegal Aliens move freely in crime sanctuary cities.[xxi], [xxii] In Los Angeles, San Diego, Stockton, New York, Chicago, Miami, Austin, and Houston, no hospital, physician, city employee, or police officer can report immigration violators to the Department of Homeland Security’s Bureau of Immigration and Customs Enforcement (the old INS). Los Angeles Police Department Special Order 40 (begun in 1979 by then Chief Daryl Gates) prohibits cops from “initiating police action where the objective is to discover the alien status of a person.”

Daily as many as 10,000 Illegal Aliens cross the 1,940-mile-long border with Mexico.[xxiii], [xxiv] About 33% are caught.  Many try again, immediately.  Authorities estimate about 3,500 Illegal Aliens daily become permanent U.S. residents, at least 3 million annually.[xxv], [xxvi], [xxvii] EMTALA rewards them with extensive, expensive free medical services if they claim emergency requirement for care. Government welcomes Illegal Aliens by refusal to police our borders, by reluctance to prosecute people who violate basic American law, and by fervor to please those who snidely abuse our generosity and cynically ply our compassion against ourselves.  

ANCHOR BABIES

American hospitals welcome Anchor Babies.  Illegal Alien women come to the hospital in labor and drop their little anchors. Each Anchor Baby born in the U.S. pulls its Illegal Alien mother, father, and siblings into permanent residency.[xxviii], [xxix] Anchor Babies are citizens and instantly qualify for welfare aid.[xxx]  Between 300,000 and 350,000 Anchor Babies annually become citizens because of the Constitution’s 14th Amendment: "All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and the State wherein they reside."

In 2003 in Stockton, California, 70% of the 2300 babies born in San Joaquin General Hospital's maternity ward were Anchor Babies, and 45% of Stockton kids under age six are Latino (up from 30% in 1993).[xxxi]  In 1994, 74,987 Anchor Babies in California hospital maternity units cost $215 million, a mere 36% of all Medi-Cal births, now substantially over 50%. 

Reality = The Seen + The Unseen. The Silverios from Stockton, California, are Illegal Aliens seen as hard-laboring fruit-pickers with family values. Cristobal Silervio came illegally from Oxtotilan, Mexico, in 1997 and brought his wife Felipa plus three children aged 19, 12, and 8.[xxxii]  Felipa, mother of the bride Lourdes (age 19), suddenly gave birth to a new daughter, her Anchor Baby named Flor.  Flor was premature, spent 3 months in the neonatal incubator, and cost San Joaquin Hospital over $300,000.  Meanwhile Lourdes plus her Illegal Alien husband produced their own little Anchor Baby named Esmeralda.  Not to be outdone, Grandma Felipa created a second Anchor Baby named Cristian.

Anchor Babies are valuable. A disabled Anchor Baby is more valuable than a well Anchor Baby. The two Silverio Anchor Babies generate $1000 per month welfare. Flor gets $600 per month for asthma, whereas healthy Cristian gets $400.  Cristobal and Felipa last year earned $18,000 picking fruit. Anchor Babies Flor and Cristian earned $12,000 for being Anchor Babies.  This Illegal Alien family’s annual income tops $30,000.

Cristobal Silverio, when drunk one Saturday night, crashed his van.  Though he had no auto insurance, no driver’s license, and owed thousands, he easily bought another van. Stockton Police say that 44% of all “hit and runs” are by Illegal Aliens.[xxxiii] If Cris had been seriously injured, not to worry.  EMTALA would provide, as it did for the four-year rehabilitation of a quadriplegic neighbor Illegal Alien. Rehab costs customarily do not fall under the title “emergency care” but partisans clamor to keep paraplegics in America rather than deport them to more primitive facilities south of the border.  Any hospital funding unreimbursed millions well knows the high cost of living.

My mechanic employs an Illegal Alien I shall call Umberto who said when I came for my truck, “Dr. Cosman, my children lost their shadows! Help me.” What?  Umberto has five disabled children: two are autistic, two have ADHD, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, and one has ODD, Oppositional Defiant Disorder, with additional OCD, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder.  All take California government-supplied medications including Ritalin. [xxxiv], [xxxv], [xxxvi], [xxxvii] The autistic children had “shadows” or personal attendants, one per child, according to the federal Individuals with Disability Education Act (1975).[xxxviii] Law provided a shadow plus an Individual Education Program that cost about $30,000 per year per kid.  Umberto and his wife dine out alone each week thanks to California-provided Respite Care baby sitters.

Illegal Aliens have translators, advocates, and middlemen supplied by immigrants’ civil rights groups or by Medicaid. [xxxix], [xl], [xli] MediCal in 2003 had 760,000 Illegal Aliens, up from 2002 when there were 470,000.  Supplemental Security Income (SSI) is a non-means-tested federal grant of money and food stamps. People qualify easily.  Scams, frauds, and cheats are rampant.  In one clinic, 300 people diagnosed as “mildly mentally retarded” all had the same translator, same psychiatrist, same symptoms, and similar stipend. [xlii] Fraud is an equal opportunity employer that intentionally flouts America’s generosity to the feeble, the crippled, and the poor.  

Illegal Aliens have powerful legal facilitators who litigate and lobby for Open Borders and for welfare benefits for all who cross onto America’s soil. Open Borders proponents imperil America’s sovereignty by obliterating distinctions between legal immigrants and Illegal Aliens, and between American citizens and all other people of the hungry world.[xliii], [xliv] Among the organizations directing Illegal Aliens into America’s medical systems are the Ford Foundation-funded Mexican American Legal Defense and Education Fund, National Immigration Law Center, American Immigration Lawyers Association, American Bar Association’s Commission on Immigration Policy, Practice, and Pro Bono, Immigrant Legal Resource Center, National Council of La Raza, George Soros’s Open Society Institute, Migration Policy Institute, National Network for Immigration and Refugee Rights, and Southern Poverty Law Center.  And there are more.[xlv], [xlvi]  

Permanent Disability has skyrocketed because its definition is vague (a 12-month problem that interferes with work),[xlvii], [xlviii], [xlix] flexible (thanks to the Sullivan case), [l], [li] and individualistic (thanks to government regulations).[lii], [liii], [liv], [lv] Mental, social, behavioral, and personality disorders are included.  Over 500,000 “mentally disabled” kids on psychotropic drugs for ADHD and ODD have incentives to bad, bizarre behavior.[lvi], [lvii], [lviii]  Kids’ disability stipends are called “crazy money” for crazy behavior.

Drug Addiction and Alcoholism are classified as diseases and disabilities. Disability Code DA&A had in 1983 only 3,000 stipend recipients but in 1994 exploded to 101,000.  In 2003, between 250,000 and 400,000 got lump sum grants of disability money via SSI. [lix],[lx], [lxi],[lxii], [lxiii], [lxiv] When Linda Torres was arrested in Bakersfield, California, with under $8500 in small bills in a sack, the police originally thought it was stolen money.[lxv] It was her SSI lump sum award for her disability: heroin addiction. 

Immigrants on SSI, including legal aliens, refugees, and illegals with fraudulent Social Security cards, in 1982 numbered a mere 127,900 aliens (3.3% recipients).[lxvi], [lxvii], [lxviii], [lxix] By 1992 the numbers gorged to 601,430 entitled (10.9% recipients).[lxx]  And in 2003: several million (c.25% recipients).

The National Immigration Law Center (NILC) proudly announced that it garnered for immigrants expensive cancer treatments, prenatal care, and critical health services by means of its litigation. Sometimes NILC worked in collaboration with lawyers from the American Civil Liberties Union and the Mexican American Legal Defense and Education Fund.  Though the 1996 Welfare Reform Legislation reduced all welfare payments to all recipients nationwide, NILC cleverly managed to restore to its constituency of legal and illegal immigrants: $12 billion in Supplemental Security Income and more than $800 million in food stamps.[lxxi], [lxxii]

For many Illegal Aliens, America is land of the victim and home of the entitled.

CONTAGIOUS DISEASES

When my grandfather came to America, he first kissed the ground of New York’s Ellis Island, then he stripped naked and coughed hard. Every legal immigrant before 1924 was examined for infectious diseases upon arrival and tested for tuberculosis.  Anyone infected was shipped back to the old country. That was powerful incentive for each newcomer to make heroic efforts to appear healthy. Today, legal immigrants must demonstrate that they are free of communicable diseases and drug addiction to qualify for lawful permanent residency Green Cards. Illegal aliens, however, cross our borders medically unexamined. 

To infiltrate the ancient walled fortress city of Troy, Greek soldiers ingeniously hid inside the body of a huge statue of a horse that the foolish Trojans welcomed into their citadel.  That night the Greeks burst forth to capture the sleeping city. To infiltrate the cities of America, Illegal Aliens hide within their bodies ferocious weapons that burst forth silently to infect our sleeping citizens.

Many illegals who skulk across our borders have tuberculosis (TB). That disease had disappeared from America thanks to excellent hygiene and powerful modern drugs such as Isoniazid and Rifampin.[lxxiii], [lxxiv], [lxxv], [lxxvi], [lxxvii], [lxxviii]  TB’s swift, deadly return now is lethal for about 60% of those infected because of new Multi-Drug Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB).[lxxix]  Until recently MDR-TB was endemic to Mexico.[lxxx], [lxxxi] This mycobacterium tuberculosis is resistant to at least two major TB drugs. Ordinary TB usually is cured in six months with four drugs (that cost about $2000). MDR-TB takes 24 months with many expensive drugs (that cost around $250,000) with toxic side effects.[lxxxii], [lxxxiii] Each Illegal Alien with MDR-TB coughs and infects 10 to 30 people who will not show symptoms immediately. Latent disease explodes later, like a time bomb.

TB was virtually absent in Virginia until in 2002 it spiked a 17 % increase, but Prince William County had a meteoric rise of 188 %. Public health officials blamed immigrants. Indiana School of Medicine in 2001 studied an outbreak of MDR-TB traced to illegal aliens from Mexico. The Queens, New York, health department attributed 81% of new TB cases in 2001 to immigrants. The Centers for Disease Control ascribed 42% of all new TB cases to “foreign born” people who have up to eight times higher incidence.[lxxxiv], [lxxxv], [lxxxvi], [lxxxvii], [lxxxviii], [lxxxix]

Apparently 66% of all TB cases coming to America originate in Mexico, the Philippines, and Viet Nam. Virulent TB outbreaks afflicted schoolteachers and children in Michigan,[xc], [xci]adults and kids in Texas,[xcii] and, in Minnesota, policemen. Recently TB erupted in Portland, Maine, and Del Ray Beach, Florida.

Chagas Disease, also called American Trypanosomiasis, has the revolting nickname of kissing bug disease. The Reduviid bug parasites favor the lips and face for infection. That noxious Trypanosoma-Cruzi protozoan in Latin America annually infects 18 million people and causes 50,000 deaths.[xciii], [xciv], [xcv], [xcvi], [xcvii], [xcviii], [xcix] This seditious disease also infiltrates America’s blood supply. Chagas affects blood transfusions and transplanted organs.  No cure exists for Chagas Disease. Hundreds of blood recipients may be silently infected.[c] After 10 to 20 years, up to 30% will die when their hearts or intestines, enlarged and weakened by Chagas Disease, explode. [ci] Three people in 2001 received Chagas-infected organ transplants. Two died.

Leprosy, a scourge in Biblical days and in medieval Europe, so horribly destroys flesh and faces it was called Disease of the Soul.[cii] Lepers quarantined in leprosaria sounded noisemakers when they ventured out to warn people to stay far away. Leprosy, Hansen’s Disease, was so rare in America that in 40 years only 900 people were afflicted.[ciii], [civ], [cv], [cvi] Suddenly, in the past three years America has more than 7,000 cases of leprosy. Leprosy now is endemic to northeastern states because Illegal Aliens and other immigrants brought leprosy from India, Brazil, the Caribbean, and Mexico.[cvii], [cviii], [cix] 

Dengue Fever is exceptionally rare in America though common in Ecuador, Peru, Viet Nam, Thailand, Bangladesh, Malaysia, and Mexico.[cx] Recently there was a virulent outbreak of Dengue Fever on the Webb County, Texas, border with Mexico.[cxi] Though Dengue usually is not a fatal disease, Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever, is one strain of the disease that routinely kills.

West Nile Virus was documented in 1937 in Uganda.[cxii], [cxiii], [cxiv], [cxv] In New York, African immigrants apparently brought the mosquito-borne West Nile encephalitis that in 1999 infected 8,200 people, 62 severely, and seven died. Now West Nile occurs in 21 states plus Washington, D.C.

Polio was eradicated from America but now reappears in illegal immigrants.[cxvi] Ditto for intestinal parasites.[cxvii], [cxviii], [cxix], [cxx] Malaria was obliterated but now is re-emerging in Texas.[cxxi], [cxxii], [cxxiii], [cxxiv] About 4000 young children under age five annually in America develop fever, red eyes, “strawberry tongue,” and acute inflammation of their coronary arteries and other blood vessels because of the infectious disease called Kawasaki Disease.  Many suffer heart attacks and sudden death.[cxxv], [cxxvi]

Hepatitis A, B, and C are resurging.[cxxvii], [cxxviii], [cxxix], [cxxx] Asians number 4% of Americans but over 50% of Hepatitis B cases. Why inoculate all American newborns for Hepatitis B when mainly Asians are susceptible?[cxxxi] 

Illegal Aliens secret in their bodies invisible, deadly time bombs. Homeland Security ignores these lethal weapons of health destruction.

CRAG AGAINST MEDICAL CATACLYSM

Ending America’s medical cataclysm requires tough medicine.[cxxxii] I propose the acronym CRAG for four critical actions to reclaim America’s Emergency Rooms, to restore medicine’s proud scientific excellence and profitability, and to protect Americans against bacterial, viral, parasitic, and fungal infectious diseases that Illegal Aliens carry across our borders.

Close America’s borders.  Prevent illegal entry with fences, high-tech security devices, and troops redeployed from Germany and South Korea. Deport Illegal Aliens. Homeland Security’s Immigration and Customs Enforcement has a division of Detention and Removal dedicated to deportation. It is hindered and hobbled by the powerful Executive Office for Immigration Review (EOIR), the Department of Justice court system that consists of the U.S. Immigration Court (USIC) plus appellate court, the Board of Immigration Appeals (BIA).  The equation EOIR = USIC + BIA usually provides amnesty for the Illegal Alien plus another level of appeal against deportation in federal circuit court. Internment and deportation are unfashionable.[cxxxiii], [cxxxiv], [cxxxv] But America’s current careless border shrugs encourage daily illegal border penetrations that violate the integrity of our medicine and our national security. 

Rescind Anchor Babies’ citizenship. We must overturn America’s misinterpretation of the 14th Amendment. The Constitution grants citizenship to all persons born or naturalized in the United States and subject to the jurisdiction thereof.  An Illegal Alien mother is subject to the jurisdiction of her home country. The baby of an Illegal Alien mother also is subject to that home country jurisdiction. When the 14th Amendment was ratified, its purpose was to assure rights of freedom and citizenship to newly emancipated black men and women. American Indians, however, were excluded from American citizenship because of their tribal jurisdiction.  Also not subject to American jurisdiction were foreign visitors, ambassadors, consuls, and their babies born here. For citizenship, the person was required to submit to complete, exclusive American jurisdiction, owing allegiance to no other nation.[cxxxvi]

Long ago the Supreme Court correctly confirmed this restricted interpretation of citizenship in the so-called Slaughter-House Cases and in Elk v. Wilkins. [cxxxvii] In Slaughter-House, the phrase “subject to its jurisdiction” excluded from its operation “children of ministers, consuls, and citizens of foreign states born within the United States.”  In Elk the American Indian claimant was born in America but considered not an American citizen because the law required him to be “not merely subject in some respect or degree to the jurisdiction of the United States, but completely subject to their political jurisdiction and owing them direct and immediate allegiance.” To obtain citizenship an Indian must separate from his tribe and be accepted by the United States as a citizen. These interpretations are the current law. 

Congress by legislation has the right to create uniform rules on naturalization and to create dual citizenship and similar variations upon “jurisdiction.” But it is ridiculous for Congress, The President, our cities, our hospitals, and our physicians and surgeons to waste the magnificence of American citizenship and its generous social and medical benefits on babies born to any criminal who demands it. 

It is irrelevant that some lawbreakers are hardworking women willing to do nasty jobs for low pay or they are wives, daughters, cousins, lovers, or concubines of men willing to do America’s dirty work. Gravid wombs should not guarantee free medical care, safe birthing, and instant infant citizenship in America. We must reestablish the original limits on citizenship and remove incentives for indigent Mexicans and others to break America’s immigration law.  Proud legal immigrants applaud order, reason, and law.

Aiding and abetting Illegal Aliens is a crime. Punish it. This will anger devotees of Illegal Aliens who believe that the Constitution guarantees them civil rights that trump American administrative, civil, and criminal laws.[cxxxviii]

Grant no new amnesties.[cxxxix]

We must choose to surrender medicine to Illegal Aliens or to fight Illegal Aliens.[cxl], [cxli]

Surrender to Illegal Aliens is surrender to collectivist America: land of moral ambiguity and home of pacifist appeasement. Fighting against Illegal Aliens is fighting for individualistic America: land of moral strength, and home of responsible liberty. 

As we fight to reclaim medicine, so we defend our nation.


[i] Frederic Bastiat’s Selected Essays on Political Economy: What is Seen and What is Unseen. Irvington-on-Hudson, New York: Foundation for Economic Education, 1995.

[ii]  Madeleine Pelner Cosman’s Who Owns Your Body?: Doctors and Patients Behind Bars. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2005.

[iii] Chong, J-R. Hawthorne Hospital to Shut Doors. R.F. Kennedy Medical Center Cites Financial Problems for Closure…Sixth ER in La County This Year.  Los Angeles Times, September 24, 2004.

[iv] Wright, CM. SSI: The Black Hole of the Welfare State. Cato Policy Analysis 224, April, 1995.
[v] Peter J. Ferrara’s Social Security: The Inherent Contradiction. Washington: Cato Institute, 1980.  
[vi]  Lee B. Reichman’s Time Bomb: The Global Epidemic of Multi-Drug Resistant Tuberculosis. New York: McGraw Hill Professional, 2001. www.TBtimebomb.com

[vii]  Laurie Garrett’s The Coming Plague. New York: Penguin, 1995.

[viii]  John Goodman, Gerald Musgrave, Devon Herrick’s Lives at Risk: Single Payer National Health Insurance Around the World. Lanham and New York: National Center for Policy Analysis, Rowman and Littlefield, 2004.

[ix]  Cosman MP.  Medicare and the Criminalization of American Medicine: 1965-1993. 6:1 National Trial Lawyer (1994). 

[x]  Turner GM.  HIPAA and the Criminalization of American Medicine.  22:1 Cato Journal, Spring/Summer 2002.

[xi]  237 F 3d 1074

[xii]  Arrington v. Wong, 237 F3rd 1066 (9th Cir. January 22, 2001)

[xiii]  Roark AC. Surgeon Tires of Effort to Plug Gap in Trauma Care-Hospitals: A doctor on call in emergency rooms. Los Angeles Times, December 23, 1990.

[xiv]  Weber T., Ornstein C, Landsberg M. King/Drew Trauma Unit Faces Closure. Drew Proposal Assailed. Los Angeles Times, September 14, 2004.

[xv]  Michelle Malkin’s Invasion. Washington: Regnery, 2004.

[xvi]  Jon E. Dougherty’s Illegals: The Imminent Threat Posed by our Unsecured U.S.-Mexico Border. Nashville: WND Books, 2004.

[xvii]  Roark AC. Surgeon Tires of Effort to Plug Gap in Trauma Care-Hospitals: A doctor on call in emergency rooms. Los Angeles Times, December 23, 1990.

[xviii]  Heather Mac Donald’s The Illegal-Alien Crime Wave. New York: Manhattan Institute, 2004. www.City-Journal.com
[xix]  Weber, EJ. Does Lack of a Usual Source of Care or Health Insurance Increase the Likelihood of an Emergency Department Visit? Results of a National Population-Based Study. Annals of Emergency Medicine, October, 2004.
[xx]  Heather Mac Donald’s The Illegal-Alien Crime Wave. New York: Manhattan Institute, 2004. www.City-Journal.com

[xxi]  Heather Mac Donald’s The Illegal-Alien Crime Wave.  New York: Manhattan Institute, 2004. www.City-Journal.com

[xxii]  Michelle Malkin’s Invasion, Washington: Regnery, 2004.

[xxiii] Michelle Malkin’s Invasion. Washington: Regnery, 2004.

[xxiv] Colorado Alliance for Immigration Reform (CAIR) www.cairco.org/articles

[xxv] DeWeese T. The Mexican Fifth Column. www.fairus.org 2003

[xxvi] Guzzardi D. Illegal Aliens: The Health Cost Dimension. www.vdare.com/guzzardi/health_care/htm.  January 25, 2003.

[xxvii]  DeWeese T. The Outrages of the Mexican Invasion. American Policy Center. www.cairco.org/articles. February 27, 2003.

[xxviii]  Knight A. Track Anchor Babies. Denver Post. September 11, 2002.

[xxix] Schlafly P. Pretending Immigration Isn’t An Issue. Colorado Alliance for Immigration Reform (CAIR), www.cairco.org/econ/econ.html. September, 2002.

[xxx]  FAIR.  Anchor Babies: Is U.S. Citizenship Owed to Illegal Aliens’ Children? Federation for American Immigration Reform, www.fairus.org

[xxxi]  Porter E. Tighter Border Yields Odd Result: More Illegals Stay. Wall Street Journal, October 10, 2003.
[xxxii] Porter E. Tighter Border Yields Odd Result: More Illegals Stay. Wall Street Journal, October 10, 2003.
[xxxiii]  Porter E. Tighter Border Yields Odd Result: More Illegals Stay. Wall Street Journal, October 10, 2003. 
[xxxiv]  Ruggles K. Principals: SSI Abuses Turn Up in Schools. Decatur Herald & Review, February 20, 1994.
[xxxv] Vatz R. Attention Deficit Delirium. Wall Street Journal, July 27, 1994.

[xxxvi]  General Accounting Office. Rapid Rise in Children on SSI Disability Rolls Follows New Regulations. GAO/HEHS94225, September 1994.

[xxxvii]  Weber T, Christensen K. The Big Refugee RipOff. Orange County Register, May 16, 1993.

[xxxviii] Sheehan S. The Autism Fight. The New Yorker, December 1, 2003.

[xxxix]  Wright, CM.  SSI: The Black Hole of the Welfare State. Cato Policy Analysis 224, April, 1995.

[xl]  U.S. House of Representatives (Committee on Ways and Means, Subcommittee on Oversight). Report…Supplemental Security Income Fraud and Abuse Involving Middlemen. May 12, 1994.

[xli]  Brown JG. SSI Drug Addicts and Alcoholics, Disabled Children, and Interpreter-Fraud. Testimony, Senate Appropriations Committee, Subcommittee on Labor, HHS and Education, May 13, 1994. 

[xlii]  Wright, CM. SSI: The Black Hole of the Welfare State. Cato Policy Analysis 224, April, 1995.

[xliv] Gutfeld, R. Citizens and Persons. Ford Foundation Report, September, 2003.

[xlv]   William Hawkins and Erin Anderson’s The Open Borders Lobby and the Nation’s Security after 9/11, Los Angeles: Center for the Study of Popular Culture, 2004. www.frontpagemagazine.com.

[xlvi]  Derk Arend Wilcox’s The Left Guide, Economics America, 2001.

[xlvii] Disability Income: 42 U.S.C. 423(d)- (1)(A), Supplemental Security Income: 42 U.S.C. 1382c(a)(3)(A).

[xlviii]  U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (Office of Inspector General). Concerns about the Participation of Children with Disabilities in the Supplemental Security Income Program. A-03-94-02602, October 1994.
[xlix]  Morgan D.  How Medicaid Grew. Washington Post, January 30-February 2, 1994.
[l]  Sullivan v. Zebley, 110 S.Ct. 885 (1990).

[li]  General Accounting Office. Rapid Rise in Children on SSI Disability Rolls Follows New Regulations. GAO/HEHS 94225, September 1994.

[lii] General Accounting Office. Social Security: Disability Rolls Keep Growing, While Explanations Remain Elusive. GAO/HEHS 9434, February 1994.
[liii]  Deborah Stone’s The Disabled State. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1984.
[liv]  Woodward B, Weiser B. Costs Soar for Children's Disability Program: How 26 Words Cost the Taxpayers Billions in New Entitlement Payments. Washington Post, February 4, 1994.
[lv] Zeitzer I.  Recent European Trends in Disability and Related Programs. Social Security Bulletin, Summer 1994.  
[lvi] National Academy of Social Insurance (Disability Policy Panel). Rethinking Disability Policy.  Social Security Bulletin, Summer 1994.

[lvii]  Koitz D, Kollmann G. Status of the Social Security Administration's Disability Programs. Congressional Research Service, April 7, 1994.

[lviii] Brown JG. SSI Drug Addicts and Alcoholics, Disabled Children, and Interpreter-Fraud. Testimony, Senate Appropriations Committee, Subcommittee on Labor, HHS and Education, May 13, 1994.  

[lix] U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (Office of Inspector General). Requirements for Drug Addicts and Alcoholics on SSI.  OEI-02-94-00110, November 1994.

[lx] U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (Office of Inspector General). Social Security Policies Concerning Drug Addicts and Alcoholics.  OEI-02-90-00950, July 1991

[lxi] Dorgan M. Addicts Feed Habits with U.S. Hand-Outs.  San Jose Mercury News, December 19, 1993.

[lxii]  General Accounting Office. Social Security: Major Changes Needed for Disability Benefits for Addicts. GAO/HEHS 94128, May 1994.

[lxiii]  O'Donnell J, Haner J. Social Security Crackdown Cost: $300 Million. Baltimore Sun, August 7, 1994.
[lxiv] Rust M. Social Security Scam: Uncle Sam as Enabler. Insight, April 11, 1994.

[lxv]  Wright, CM. SSI: The Black Hole of the Welfare State. Cato Policy Analysis 224, April, 1995.

[lxvi] Aronovitz LG. Medicaid: A Program Highly Vulnerable to Fraud. Testimony, U.S. House of Representatives, Committee on Government Operations, Subcommittee on Human Resources and Intergovernmental Relations.  GAO/HEHS-94-106, February 25, 1994.

[lxvii] O'Donnell J, Haner J. Social Security Crackdown Cost: $300 Million. Baltimore Sun, August 7, 1994.
[lxviii] O'Donnell J, Haner J. Crackdown on Addicts Looks Costly. Baltimore Sun, October 13, 1994.
[lxix]  O'Donnell J, Haner J. Outrage Follows Report on Crackdown Costs. Baltimore Sun, October 14, 1994.
[lxx]  Wright, CM. SSI: The Black Hole of the Welfare State. Cato Policy Analysis 224, April, 1995.

[lxxi]  William Hawkins and Erin Anderson’s The Open Borders Lobby and the Nation’s Security after 9/11, Los Angeles: Center for the Study of Popular Culture, 2004. www.frontpagemagazine.com.

[lxxii]  Derk Arend Wilcox’s The Left Guide, Economics America, 2001.

[lxxiii] Meyer M, Barron D, ImmigrantMedicine.qxd. www.ahcpub.com/Immigrant_Medicine.pdf.

[lxxiv]  Centers for Disease Control, www.cdc.gov/netinfo 
[lxxv]  Seattle Biomedical Research Institute, www.info@sbri.org
[lxxvi]  New York Online Access to Health, www.NOAH-health.org

[lxxvii]  National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, www.NIAID.nih.gov

[lxxviii]  Gavagan T, Brodyaga L. Medical care for immigrants and refugees. Am Fam Physician 1998; 57:1061-1068.

 

[lxxix]  Lee B. Reichman’s Time Bomb: The Global Epidemic of Multi-Drug Resistant Tuberculosis, New York: McGraw Hill Professional, 2001. www.TBtimebomb.com

[lxxx] Pablos-Mendez A, Raviglione MC, Laszio A, et al. Global surveillance for antituberculosis-drug resistance, 1994-1997. N Engl J Med 1998;338:1641-1649.

 

[lxxxi] New York Academy of Sciences, Update, January, 2002. 
[lxxxii]  National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, www.NIAID.nih.gov

[lxxxiii]  New York Online Access to Health, www.NOAH-health.org

[lxxxiv] McCray E, Weinbaum CM, Brader CR, et al. The epidemiology of tuberculosis in the United States. Clin Chest Med 1997;18:99-113.

[lxxxv] Division of Tuberculosis Elimination, CDC. Tuberculosis morbidity among U.S.-born and foreign-born populations-United States, 2000. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2002;51:101-104.

[lxxxvi]  Recommendations for the prevention and control of tuberculosis among foreign born persons. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 1998;47:1-29.

[lxxxvii]  Talbot EA, Moore M, McCray E, et al. Tuberculosis among foreign-born persons in the United States, 1993-1998. JAMA 2000;284:2894-2900.

[lxxxviii]  GT Strickland’s Hunter’s Tropical Medicine. Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders Company, 2000.

[lxxxix] Chin DP, DeRiemer K, Small PM, et al. Differences in contributing factors to tuberculosis incidence in US-born and foreign-born persons. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1998;158:1797-1803.

[xc] Frosty Wooldridge’s Immigration's Unarmed Invasion, Deadly Consequences Bloomington, Indiana: Author House, 2004.

[xci] Immigrants’ Health Care Coverage and Access Fact Sheet. Washington, DC. Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the Uninsured; March 2001

[xcii]  Sahly HM, Adams GJ, Soini H, et al. Epidemiologic differences between United States and foreign-born tuberculosis patients in Houston, Texas. J Infect Dis 2001;183:461-468

 

[xciii] National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, www.NIAID.nih.gov/focuson/bugborne01/chagas.htm

[xciv] New York Online Access to Health, www.NOAH-health.org

[xcv] Centers for Disease Control, www.cdc.gov/netinfo
[xcvi] Seattle Biomedical Research Institute, www.info@sbri.org

[xcviii] National Institutes of Health, Division of Parasitic Diseases, www.medhelp.org/NIHlib/GF-510.htm

[xcix] Frosty Wooldridge’s Immigration's Unarmed Invasion, Deadly Consequences Bloomington, Indiana: Author House, 2004.

[c] McNeill DG.  Chagas. New York Times, November 18, 2003. 

[ci]  Hagar JM, Rahimtoola, SH. Chagas’ Heart Disease. Curr Probl Cardiol 1995;20:825

[cii]  Saul Nathaniel Brody’s The Disease of the Soul: Leprosy in Medieval Literature. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1974.

[ciii] Walker P, Jaranson J. Refugee and immigrant health care. Med Clin North Am 1999;4:1103-1120.

[civ] National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, www.NIAID.nih.gov 
[cv]  New York Online Access to Health, www.NOAH-health.org
[cvi] Centers for Disease Control, www.cdc.gov/netinfo

[cvii] Statistical abstract of the United States, 1996. In: The National Data Book. 116th ed. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census;1996.

[cviii]  Gavagan T, Brodyaga L. Medical care for immigrants and refugees. Am Fam Physician 1998;57:1061-1068.

[cix]  Meyer M, Barron D, ImmigrantMedicine.qxd. www.ahcpub.com/Immigrant_Medicine.pdf.

[cx]  www.outbreaknewsdigest.org.  27 May 2001

[cxi] National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, www.NIAID.nih.gov 

[cxii]  National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, www.NIAID.nih.gov

[cxiii]  New York Online Access to Health, www.NOAH-health.org

[cxiv] Centers for Disease Control, www.cdc.gov/netinfo

[cxv] Seattle Biomedical Research Institute, www.info@sbri.org

[cxvi]  Findley S, Irigoyen M, Schulman A. Children on the move and vaccination coverage in a low-income urban Latino population. Am J Pub Health 1999; 89: 1728-1731.

[cxvii] Salas S, Heifetz R, Barrett-Connor E. Intestinal parasites in Central American immigrants in the United States. Arch Intern Med 1990;150:1514-1516.

[cxviii] Flores EC, Plumb SC, McNeese MC. Intestinal parasitosis in an urban pediatric clinic population. Am J Dis Child 1983;137:754-756.

[cxix]  Liu H, Weller S. Strongyloides and other intestinal nematode infections. Infect Dis Clin North Am 1993; 7:662-677.

[cxx]  Muennig P, Pallin D, Sell RL, et al. The cost effectiveness of strategies for the treatment of intestinal parasites in immigrants. N Engl J Med 1999;340:773-779.

[cxxi]  Krogstad DJ. Malaria as a re-emerging disease. Epidemiol Rev 1996;18:77-89.

[cxxii] White NJ. The treatment of malaria. N Engl J Med 1996;335:800-806.

[cxxiii] Moody A, Hunt-Cook A, Gabbett E, et al. Performance of the OptiMAL antigen capture dipstick for malaria diagnosis and treatment…Hospital for Tropical Diseases, London. Br J Haematol 2000; 109:891.

[cxxiv] Statistical yearbook of the Immigration and Naturalization Service, 1996. Washington, DC: Immigration and Naturalization Service, 1997.

[cxxv] Newburger JW American Heart Association revises Kawasaki Disease guidelines.  Dallas, TX, October 25, 2004, www.aha.org, endorsed by American Academy of Pediatrics.

[cxxvi]  Meyer M, Barron D, ImmigrantMedicine.qxd. www.ahcpub.com/Immigrant_Medicine.pdf.

[cxxvii]  Franks AL, Berg CJ, Kane MA, et al. Hepatitis B infection among children born in the United States to Southeast Asian refugees. New Engl J Med 1989;321: 1301-1304.

[cxxviii]  National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, www.NIAID.nih.gov

[cxxix]  Kulstrunk M, Euequoz D, Dubach VC, et al. Prevalence of hepatitis B virus in Kurdish refugees. J Hepatology 1992;15: 418-419.

[cxxx]  Hurie MB, Mast EE, Davis JP. Horizontal transmission of hepatitis B virus nfection to United States-born children of Hmong refugees. Pediatrics 1992;89:269-273.

[cxxxi] Schlafly P. Disease Attacks On Americans. Eagle Forum, November 7, 2001, http://www.eagleforum.org /column/2001/nov01/01-11-07.shtml

[cxxxii] FAIR. International Terrorism: Serious Solutions for Immigration Controls. Washington: Federation for American Immigration Reform (FAIR), 2004, www.fairus.org. (FAIR, 1666 Connecticut Avenue N.W., Washington, D.C. 20009).

[cxxxiii] Michelle Malkin’s The Case for Internment: The Case for “Racial Profiling” in World War II and the War on Terror. Washington: Regnery, 2004.

[cxxxiv] William Hawkins and Erin Anderson’s The Open Borders Lobby and the Nation’s Security after 9/11, Los Angeles: Center for the Study of Popular Culture, 2004. www.frontpagemagazine.com.

[cxxxv]  Jon E. Dougherty’s Illegals: The Imminent Threat Posed by our Unsecured U.S.-Mexico Border. Nashville: WND Books, 2004

[cxxxvi] Eastman J. Wrong Question in Hamdi: The Supreme Court Must Clarify Birthright Citizenship. Claremont Institute for Constitutional Jurisprudence. Amicus Curiae brief, Supreme Court, Claremont Institute, 2004, www.claremont.org/static/hamdimeritsbrieffinal.pdf.

[cxxxvii] 83 U.S. (16 Wall.) 36 (1873), and 112 US 94 (1884)

[cxxxviii]  Mae M. Ngai’s Impossible Subjects: Illegal Aliens and the Making of America, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2004.

[cxxxix]  Bush Caves to Fox—No US Visit processing for Mexican BCC Holders.  Mexican News Services, July 29, 2004.

[cxl] Cosman MP. Surrender to Wildfire.  Doctors for Disaster Preparedness, San Diego, June 26, 2004.

[cxli] Cosman, MP. Surrender to Wildfire. Advance. www.freedom21santacruz.net.

Dr. Madeleine Cosman, Esq., is is a medical law attorney who speaks around the country on issues of medicine and freedom.  She had a significant hand in the demise of the Clinton health plan. 

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